Viagra Invented By Albanian

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Who Invented Viagra Albanian

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Viagra

By Mary Bellis. Inventors Expert

"Life might seem cruel, but they are paid to work for the company and the company owns their inventions. Literally hundreds of people at Pfizer have been involved in developing the drug. You can't really point to two individuals and say they spawned Viagra." – Pfizer Pharmaceuticals spokesperson on naming the inventors of Viagra

Peter Dunn and Albert Wood

According to the British Press (but not exactly according to Pfizer or others involved), Peter Dunn and Albert Wood both of Kent, England are named as the inventors of the process by which Viagra was created.

Continue Reading Below

Their names appeared on an application by Pfizer to patent (WOWO9849166A1) the manufacturing process of Viagra or Sildenafil Citrate.

Peter Dunn and Albert Wood are both employees of Pfizer Pharmaceuticals at the Pfizer run research laboratories in Kent and employees are not allowed to discuss their status or non-status as inventors. "I can't say anything, you'll have to talk to the press office. " – Albert Wood

Bell, Brown & Terrett – Treating Heart Problems

In 1991, inventors Andrew Bell, Dr David Brown and Dr Nicholas Terrett (also Pfizer employees at Kent) discovered that chemical compounds belonging to the pyrazolopyrimidinone class were useful in treating heart problems such as angina.

Nicholas Terrett was named in the 1991 British patent for Sildenafil (tradenamed Viagra) as a heart medicine, and some experts consider him as the father of Viagra.

Nicholas Terrett is also not allowed to discuss whether he considers himself the real inventor of Viagra as he is still a Pfizer employee. "There were three patents put forward for Viagra. Basically me and my team discovered how useful the drug might be. they (Wood and Dunn) created a way of mass producing it only" – Dr Nicholas Terrett

Continue Reading Below

Increased Blood Flow

By I994, Nicholas Terrett and colleague Peter Ellis discovered during the trial studies of Sildenafil as a heart medicine that it also increased blood flow to the penis, allowing men to reverse erectile dysfunctions. The drug acts by enhancing the smooth muscle relaxant effects of nitric oxide, a chemical that is normally released in response to sexual stimulation. The smooth muscle relaxation allows increased blood flow into the penis leading to an erection when combined with something naughty.

Making the Pill

Peter Dunn and Albert Wood then worked on the crucial nine-step process to synthesize a Sildenafil (Viagra) compound into a pill. It was approved by the FDA on March 27, 1998, as the first pill to treat impotence.

Paper Shortage

Pfizer claims that hundreds of inventors were involved with the creation of Viagra and there was not enough room on the patent application to name them all, so only the department heads were listed. Dr Simon Campbell, who until recently was the Senior Vice President Of Medicinal Discovery at Pfizer and oversaw Viagra's development, is considered by the American press to be the inventor of Viagra. However, Simon Campbell would rather be remembered as the father of Amlodipine, a cardiovascular drug. "I'm like Columbus. "- Dr Simon Campbell on Viagra's development.

Steps In Making Viagra

  1. Methylation of 3-propylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester with hot dimethyl sulfate
  2. Hydrolysis with aqueous NaOH to free acid
  3. Nitration with oleum/fuming nitric acid
  4. Carboxamide formation with refluxing thionyl chloride/NH4OH
  5. Reduction of nitro group to amino
  6. Acylation with 2-ethoxybenzoyl chloride
  7. Cyclization
  8. Sulfonation to the chlorosulfonyl derivative
  9. Condensation with 1-methylpiperazine

Empirical formula = C22H30N6O4S
molecular weight = 474.5
solubility = 3.5 mg/mL in water

Viagra & Lawsuits

One billion dollars in sales were made in Viagra's first year of production.

Many lawsuits surround Viagra and Pfizer including the suit filed for $110 million dollars on behalf of Joseph Moran, a car dealer from New Jersey, who claimed that he crashed his car into two parked cars after Viagra caused him to see blue lightning coming from his fingertips, at which point he blacked out. Joseph Moran was driving his Ford thunderbird home from a date at the time.

Ferid Murad: Albanian-American Nobel Prize Winner

Prof. Ferid Murad

born in the US, son of an Albanian moslem immigrant father and an American Baptist mother, was awarded the Nobel prize in Medicine in 1998. He received his M.D. Degree in 1965 from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, from which he also received a Ph.D. in Pharmacology that same year. Among other awards/honors that Dr. Murad has earned are the Ciba Award – American Heart Assoc. (1988); NIDDK Bd. of Scientific Counselors (1990-1994) (Chairman, 1993-1994); Lasker Award for Basic Research (1996); Member National Academy of Sciences (1997); Member Inst. of Med. National Academy of Sciences (1998). He is the author/co-author of some 334 medical/scientific publications. The following article about Dr. Murad was excerpted from The Jerusalem Post, November 29, 1998:

“Dr. Ferid Murad, chairman of the department of integrative biology and pharmacology at the University of Texas (Houston) Medical School, will receive the Nobel prize along with Robert Furchgott of the State University of New York and Louis Ignarro of the University of Californa at Los Angeles. All three, working independently in Texas, California, and New York, have spent decades conducting basic research on nitric oxide (NO). Not only did their discoveries lead to the use of Viagra for treating impotence, they have now found that NO – which in minute quantities acts as the body’s most important signaling molecule – is profoundly involved in blood pressure, heart function, infections, lung problems, and the defense of the body against tumors, as well as having the potential to treat disease.

Although his father was an Albanian Moslem and his mother an American Baptist, Murad became an Episcopalian and married Carol, a Presbyterian teacher who is the mother of their five grown children. “My parents had a tiny restaurant in our home town of Whiting, Indiana, and I used to wash dishes and wait on tables to cover the cost of my medical studies. I didn’t write down what people ate – I memorized the details as a kind of game, and I think that helped me later in my scientific work.”

When Dr. Fathi Arafat, president of the Palestinian Red Crescent, learned that Murad had come to Jerusalem to lecture, he informed his brother, Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat, who invited Murad to Gaza for a 30-minute weekend meeting.

Murad, whose university is the largest medical research institution in the world, noted that NO has the ability to dilate blood vessels and relax smooth muscle tissue; this led to its application in the anti-impotence pill (Viagra). But he also predicted that NO will be relevent in the fight against cancer, Alzeimer’s disease, heart disease and many other conditions. Altho researchers have long known various details about NO, in 1977 Murad discovered that nitroglycarin pills – used by heart patients for a century – work because they release NO. The colorless, odorless gas signals blood vessels to relax, which lowers blood pressure and relieves the pain of angina pectoris. “For years, colleagues said I was crazy to invest so much time and effort in NO,” Murad recalled. “But I was certain right from the beginning.”

Ironically, Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite (a product in which the explosion-prone nitroglycarin is curbed by being absorbed in a porous soil) became ill with heart disease, and his doctor prescribed nitroglycarin. Nobel refused to take it, knowing that it caused headache and dismissing the possibility that it could eliminate chest pain.

Murad, who works 16 to 18 hours a day, noted that since the Nobel prize announcement, he has been overwhelmed by queries and invitations to collaborate in important research projects. “I used to get 5 or 10 applications a month; now I receive an average of 15 a week. I’m no more brilliant or stupid than I was before the announcement – but now everybody’s listening,” he said with a smile.”

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